Discover what is the manufacturing forming process Forging and its usage in the industry.
Forging is a manufacturing process that forms metal using compressive forces and a hammer, most often a power hammer or die. The hammer delivers what we called a “blow.” The forging process is classified according to a temperature such as cold, warm, or hot forging. When working at increased temperatures, metal is heated, usually in a forge.
Presses or hammers perform present-day industrial forging powered by compressed air, electricity, hydraulics, or steam. They’re not your ordinary hammer—featuring reciprocating weights in the thousands of pounds. In art smithies, smaller power hammers feature reciprocating weight of 500 lbs (230 kg) or less, while hydraulic presses are standard. Steam hammers have mostly become obsolete, although a minimal amount is still necessary, with the advancement of more convenient and powerful tools.
While today forging is a major worldwide industry, it is one of the oldest known metalworking processes performed by smiths throughout the millennia. Traditionally, forging was the preferred process for hand tools, jewelry, kitchenware, hardware, and edged weapons. Since the Industrial Revolution, the forging process is wherever a part requires strength, usually machining into a finished part. Although forged parts are generally more robust than their equivalent cast or machined parts, significant expenditure capital is necessary for furnaces, machinery, tooling, facilities, and personnel.
Temperature plays a crucial role in forging, even if the above processes can be performed at various temperatures. They are classified either as above or below the recrystallization temperature and in one of three categories: hot, warm, or cold. Hot forging is faster and more precise, while cold forging usually results in work hardening of the piece.
There are three main classes of forging processes:
Automatic hot forging, cogging, impression die forging, open die forging, press forging, roll forging, swaging, and upsetting are the most common forging processes.
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