The Charged Particle Module calculates the interaction of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic fields. It uses the Finite Element method to solve Maxwell’s equations for the steady-state case in a discretized model, and provides a self-consistent solution including the effects of space-charge, self-magnetic fields and relativistic motion.
A comprehensive set of emitter models is provided, including thermionic and field effect emission from surfaces, secondary emission from surfaces and within volumes (used to model gas ionization), and models for unmagnetized and magnetized plasmas.
It is possible to include multiple species of charged particles, each having user defined charge and mass. Field emission, compared to the thermionic emission, can be a more attractive mechanism in extracting electrons from the cathodes because the electrons are emitted at room temperature (cold cathode) by the quantum mechanical field effect which requires less electrical power. Growing in popularity are carbon nano-tube emitters, which, because of their size, may be used in more portable devices.